After years of struggles, the IP fragmentation remains one of the challenges in IP network deployment, particularly if you have to implement extra layers in the protocol stack (like PPP over Ethernet) or if you use any IP-over-IP encapsulation or IP encryption techniques. In this IP Corner article, Ivan Pepelnjak describes the reasons behind IP fragmentation, how the Path MTU Discovery works and how the various mechanisms can be used on Cisco routers to alleviate the IP fragmentation-related problems.

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